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Ni vizuri kwenda kupima katika hospitali na vituo vya huduma ili kugundua hali yako ya afya na kufuata ushauri nasaha.

Inachukua siku 90(miezi mitatu) kwa VVU kuonekana, ndio maana ni vizuri kurudi kupima siku ya 90 baada ya kupata vipimo vya kwanza vya VVU.

Magonjwa nyemelezi husababishwa na vijidudu mbalimbali kama bacteria,virusi,fangasi na bakteria.

  • Bakteria
    Baadhi ya magonjwa yasababishwayo na bakteria ni kama yafuatayo;

    Kifua Kikuu (TB)
    Ugonjwa huu husababishwa na kimelea kiitwacho Mycobacterium tuberculosis ambacho ni moja katika kundi la Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC).Kushuka kwa kinga ya mwili hupelekea kulipuka kwa vimelea vya kifua kikuu ambavyo hupatikana, pamoja na viungo vingine, zaidi kwenye mapafu.
    Dalili za kifua kikuu ni pamoja na kikohozi na homa (haswa nyakati za usiku) kwa zaidi ya wiki mbili.Kutokwa jasho usiku (mara nyingi jasho huwa jingi mpaka kulowesha shuka),kupungua uzito (zaidi ya kilo moja na nusu ndani ya mwezi), Kichomi na kukohoa damu.
    Ugonjwa huu pia huweza kupelekea kupata homa ya uti wa mgongo(meningitis) ambayo huambata na dalili kama kuumwa kichwa, kichefu chefu na kutapika ikifutiwa na kuongezeka kwa joto la mwili na maumivu na kukaza kwa shingo.

    Nimonia (Pneumonia)
    Huu ni ugonjwa ambao kwa kiasi kikubwa huathiri mfumo wa hewa na haswa mapafu.Baadhi ya vimelea viletavyo nimonia ni kama Pneumococcus ,Haemopilus influenza, Mycoplasma (haswa kwa watoto) pia Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (kwa wagonjwa waliolazwa mahospitalini) na wengineo.
    Ugonjwa huu huanza ghafla na dalili zake ni kama homa kali, kikohozi, maumivu wakati wa kupumua, baridi na kutetemeka.

    Ugonjwa wa Ngozi
    Huu husababishwa na vimelea vya Staphylococcus aureus.Vimelea hivi huishi katika mwili wa binadamu (kwenye ngozi ya kichwa na kinena (groins) na kwapani) bila madhara.Pia hupatikana kooni na katika utumbo mpana na mkojo.
    Vimelea vya Staphylococcus husambaa kwenda sehemu nyingine ya mwili kutoka kwenye usaha, mgusano na ngozi ya mwenye maradhi, kutumia taulo, matandiko,vifaa vya mtu aliyeathirika n.k
    Dalili zake ni pamoja na chunusi, majipu, kubabuka kwa ngozi na magamba magamba katika ngozi.
  • Magonjwa ya Virusi
    Magonjwa yasababishwayo na virusi ni kama;

    Ugonjwa wa Malengelenge
    Husababishwa na virusi vya Herpes Simplex.Hivi vimegawanyika katika Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) na Herpes Simplex-2 (HSV-2).Virusi vya HSV-1 vyaweza ambukizwa kupitia ngozi laini (mucous membranes) za mwili na kubusiana.Huweza kusababisha mwasho kwenye midomo,ulimi,fizi za meno au kingo za juu za kinywa (buccal mucosa).Kwa upande wa virusi vya HSV-2 hivi huweza kusababisha michubuko na maumivu kwenye uume,uke na njia ya haja kubwa.

    Katika kiwango cha juu cha ugonjwa viungo vingine vya mwili kama macho, njia ya chakula, mfumo wa fahamu na na njia za mfumo wa hewa huathirika.

    Dalli balimbali za ugonjwa huu ni malengelenge (blisters), mwasho na muunguzo.Kushindwa kumeza au kupata maumivu wakati wa kumeza (haswa chakula),tezi kuvimba na maumivu wakati wa haja kubwa au ndogo.

    Mkanda wa jeshi
    Husababishwa na kirusi kiitwacho Varicella Zoster (VSV).Mara nyingi hutokana na kuamshwa kwa ugonjwa ambao ulikuwepo mwilini hapo Awali (reactivation of an earlier infection).Mbali ya kuathiri uwanda' (dermatome) moja au zaidi wa mishipa ya fahamu (neva),pia huweza kudhuru jicho (herpes zoster opthalmicus) na sikio (herpes zoster oticus).
    Dalili zake ni maumivu makali katika uwanda' ulioathirika, homa, vipele, maumivu ya kichwa, uchovu na maumivu ya macho kutokana na mwanga (photophobia).

    Maumivu ya Retina
    Kwa lugha ya kitaalamu huitwa CMV Retinitis na husababishwa na kirusi kiitwacho Cytomegalovirus (CMV).Kirusi hiki, mbali ya kuathiri jicho na haswa retina, pia huathiri viungo vingine kama mapafu na kusababisha nimonia, utumbo mpana na mfumo wa fahamu ambako husababisha maumivu.

    Dalili zake ni pamoja na kutoona vizuri, macho kuuma, kutokwa na machozi kwa wingi.Kutopata matibabu mapema huweza kusababisha upofu.Pia Huweza kuathiri viungo vingine na kusababiosha homa, nimonia, kichefuchefu, kuharisha na kupungua uzito.
  • Magonjwa yatokanayo na Fangasi

    Fangasi pia huweza kujitokeza iwapo kinga ya mwili itashuka.


Kandidiasisi
Ugonjwa huu uliozoeleka pia hujulikana kwa kitaalamu kama Candidiasis.Kandidiasisi husababishwa na fangasi aitwaye Candida albicans ambaye huathiri kinywa, mfumo wa chakula,uke na mfumo wa hewa.Kandidiasisi katika uke huweza tokea kwa mwanamke mwenye afya asiye na VVU.

Dalili za Kandidiasisi katika kinywa ni pamoja na kubadilika kwa ladha,maumivu kwenye ulimi,utando mweupe kwenye ulimi na kingo za juu za kinywa (buccal mucosa),kushindwa kumeza,maumivu wakati wa kumeza chakula ikiwa fangasi imesambaa sana. Pia mwasho na maumivu ukeni pamoja na kutokwa na majimaji meupe ukeni.

Homa ya Uti wa mgongo
Homa ya uti wa mgongo au Meningitis kwa kitaalamu husababishwa na fangasi aitwaye Cryptococcal neoformans.Uti wa mgongo utokanao na aina hii ya fangasi huweza kusababisha kifo usipotibiwa.Aina hii ya fangasi ambayo huathiri zaidi ubongo na uti wa mgongo, hutokana na kuvuta hewa yenye vumbi litokanalo na ndege lenye vimelea vya ugonjwa.
Baadhi ya dalili zake ni homa, kutoona vizuri,macho kuuma kutokana na mwanga,kuchanganyikiwa akili,maumivu ya kichwa ka kukakamaa na kuuma kwa shingo.

Histoplasmosisi
Aina hi ya fangasi hutokana na vimelea vya Histoplasma capsulatum.Fangasi huyu huathiri mapafu pamoja na viungo vingine.Dalili zake ni homa,uchovu,kupungua uzito na kupumua kwa shida.Pia kukohoa na kuvimba kwa tezi kwaweza kutokea.

Nimonia
Kama bakteria na fangasi pia huweza kusababisha nimonia ijulikanayo kwa kitaalamu kama Pneoumocystis Pneumonia (PCP).Vimelea vya Pneumocystis jiroveci (awali vilijulikana kama Pneuomocystis carinii) huathiri mfumo wa hewa.Fangasi huyu pia huweza kuathiri viungo vingine kama ini,wengu (spleen) na figo katika baadhi ya wagonjwa.
Dalili zake ni kikohozi kikavu,kifua kubana,kupumua kwa shida,homa,kuishiwa pumzi na kutokwa jasho nyakati za usiku.

  • Magonjwa yatokanayo na Protozoa

Toksoplasmosisi ya Ubongo
Cerebral toxoplasmosis, kama ujulikanavyo kitaalamu,hutokana na kuamshwa kwa ugonjwa wa awali kutokana na vimelea vya Toxoplasma gondii (kimelea kiwezacho kuishi ndani ya seli kinachoathiri ndege,wanyama na binadamu).Kimelea hiki kiathiricho zaidi mfumo wa fahamu,hupatikana kwenye nyama isiyopikwa vizuri na mavi ya paka.Huathiri zaidi ubongo na kusababisha maumivu ya kichwa,kuchanganyikiwa,udhaifu wa viungo,homa,kupoteza fahamu,kupooza na kifafa.

Kriptosporidiosisi
Huu ni ugonjwa utokanao na vimelea vya Cryptosporidium.Huathiri zaidi mfumo wa chakula na hutokana na kutumia kwa maji au chakula vilivyoathirika na vimelea vya ugonjwa huu.Dalili zake ni kuharisha sana kiasi cha kusababisha kupungukiwa na maji mwilini (dehydration),maumivu wakati wa haja kubwa, kichefuchefu na kutapika.Wagonjwa wa aina hii huwa na joto la mwili la kawaida.

Matibabu na Ushauri

Aina ya matibabu hutegemea na aina ya ugonjwa na mtu, pia kutokana na kuwepo kwa Ukimwi/VVU hutegemea kiwango cha seli za CD4 mwilini.Iwapo una dalili kati ya zilizotajwa hapo juu ni vyema kumona daktari kwa uchunguzi zaidi.
Ni vyema kuzingatia kuwepo kwa dalili zilizotajwa hapo juu hakumanishi kuwa muathirika ana VVU na si kila mwenye VVU huwa na dalili hizo.Pia kujitokeza kwa dalili kunaweza kutofautiana kati ya mtu na mtu.Hata hivyo ni vyema kupima afya yako kila mara haswa VVU ili kujua chanzo cha kupungua kwa Kinga ya mwili ambayo huweza kupelekea kupata magonjwa nyemelezi

  1. Kujamiiana bila kutumia kinga na mtu mwenye maambukizi ya Virusi Vya UKIMWI (VVU).
  2. Mama mwenye Maambukizi kumuambukiza mtoto wake wakati wa ujauzito, wakati wa kujifungua na wakati wa kunyonyesha ikiwa njia sahihi za kumkinga mtoto hazitachukuliwa mfano; mama kutumia dawa (ART), Dawa ya kumkinga mtoto baada ya kuzaliwa (Nevirapine).
  3. kwa njia ya damu yenye maambukizi: Kuongezewa damu yenye maambukizi ya VVU/UKIMWI
  4. Kuchangia vitu vyenye ncha kali kama Sindano, wembe n.k.
  • Kufanya tendo la ndoa bila kutumia kinga na mtu mwenye maambukizi ya VVU
  • Mama mwenye Maambukizi kumuambukiza mtoto wake wakati wa ujauzito, kujifungua na wakati wa kunyonyesha ikiwa njia sahihi za kumkinga mtoto hazitachukuliwa mfano mama kutumia dawa ( ART), Dawa ya kumkinga mtoto baada ya kuzaliwa ( Nevirapine) n.k
  • Kuongezewa damu yenye maambukizi ya VVU/UKIMWI
  • Kuchangia vitu vyenye ncha kali kama Sindano, wembe n.k
  • Kuzingatia matumizi sahihi ya dawa i.e. wakati, kiwango, utunzaji n.k
  • Kuzingatia ushauri anaopewa na wataalamu i.e. vipimo vya msingi, ufuasi wa dawa
  • Lishe bora kulingana na mazingira anayoishi
  • Kupata huduma za kinga mfano Kondomu, Uzazi wa mpango, unyanyasaji wa kijinsia n.k.

Magonjwa nyemelezi si neno geni miongoni mwa watu wengi haswa katika miongo hii miwili toka kugundulika kwa ugonjwa wa Upungufu wa Kinga Mwilini (UKIMWI) na Virusi Vya Ukimwi (VVU).

Magonjwa nyemelezi ni yale ambayo hushambulia mwili wa binadamu pale uwezo wa kinga ya mwili kupigana na vimelea vya magonjwa unaposhuka.Ni magonjwa ambayo katika hali ya kawaida hayategemewi kujitokeza kwa mtu mwenye kinga kamili ya mwili.
Kwa kawaida mwili wa binadamu yeyote umeumbwa na kinga ya mwili ya asili ambayo lengo lake kuu ni kuulinda mwili dhidi ya vimelea vya magonjwa.Inapotokea kimelea (vimelea) kuingia katika mwili wa binadamu kwa njia yoyote (kunywa au kula vimelea,kugusana na majimaji au ngozi ya mtu mwenye vimelea,au kupitia damu yenye vimelea n.k), mwili hutengeneza kingamwili (antibodies) ambazo hupigana na vimelea hivyo ili kuuweka mwili katika afya njema kama hapo awali.

Kushuka kwa kinga ya mwili hupelekea mwili kushindwa kupigana na vimelea vya magonjwa hivyo kusababisha kushambuliwa na magonjwa.Ifahamike kwamba baadhi ya vijidudu(microorganisms) pia hupatikana katika mwili wa binadamu bila madhara yoyote (normal flora) kama vile kwenye ngozi, mfumo wa chakula, ukeni, uumeni n.k Hata hivyo vijidudu hivi huweza kuwa chanzo cha magonjwa iwapo kinga ya mwili itashuka.

Sababu mojawapo kubwa ya kushuka kwa kinga ya mwili haswa katika nchi zilizopo chini ya jangwa la Sahara ni Ukimwi/VVU.Hata hivyo ieleweke kwmba si kila mtu mwenye upungufu wa kinga mwilini ana VVU.

Maambukizi ya VVU kutoka kwa mama kwenda kwa mtoto yanatokea kwenye vipindi vitatu;

  • Wakati wa ujauzito: Mama mwenye VVU asipotumia dawa za ARV maalumu kwa ajili ya mama wajawazito anaweza kumuambukiza mtoto aliye tumboni
  • Wakati wa uchungu na kujifungua: mama mjamzito mwenye VVU asipotumia dawa za ARV maalumu kwa ajili ya mama wajawazito anaweza kumuambukiza mtoto kwa kupitia maji maji na damu wakati wa uchungu na kujifungua.
  • Wakati wa kunyonyesha:mama mjamzito mwenye VVU asipotumia dawa za ARV maalumu kwa ajili mama anayenyonyesha na mtoto kupata dawa kwa kipindi cha wiki 6 baada tu ya kuzaliwa, anaweza kumuambukiza mtoto VVU.

NDIO, YANAWEZA KUZUILIKA KWA NJIA ZIFUATAZO;

  • Mama mjamzito kupata elimu ya kupima VVU na ushauri nasaha, kujua hali yake maambukizi mapema pindi anapojua ni mjamzito (Kliniki), pia hata baada ya kujifungua.
  • Mama mjamzito anapogundulika ana maambukizi ya VVU anatakiwa kuanza dawa za kupunguza kiwango cha VVU (Viral suppression)
  • Njia salama za mama mjamzito kujifungua
  • Dawa za kinga kwa mtoto baada ya kuzaliwa (Nevirapine)
  • Elimu na ushauri kwa mama anaenyonyesha namna bora/sahihi ya kumnyonyesha mtoto wake
  • Ufuatiliaji wa karibu wa mtoto aliezaliwa na mama mwenye maambukizi ya VVU, mfano ukuaji wa mtoto, Chanjo, kinga za magonjwa nyemelezi, kipimo cha mapema cha VVU kwa watoto wadogo akiwa na wiki 4 – 8 (Dried Blood Sample)
  • Kuanzisha vikundi Ariel club kwa ajili ya vijana na watoto,
  • Kutoa huduma za kisaikologia kupitia Ariel camps, pia
  • Kutoa elimu ya afya kuhusu VVU/UKIMWI, afya ya uzazi , ufuasi mzuri wa dawa.
  • Na kutoa huduma rafiki kwa vijana

Yes. HIV infection is an important concern for people of all ages, and young adults are no different.

The same behaviors that put adults at risk for HIV also put adolescents at risk. These activities include:

  • Having vaginal, anal, or oral sex without using a condom; or
  • Sharing drug injection equipment.

Adolescents should also be aware of these high-risk situations:

  • Drinking or using drugs. Drugs and alcohol can affect your judgment and lead to unplanned and unprotected sex.
  • Injection drug use, including sharing needles, syringes, cotton, spoons, bottle caps, or any other equipment (“works”).
  • Experiencing “blackouts” – not being able to remember what happened while using alcohol or drugs.
  • Not understanding your own risk of being infected with HIV or your partner’s risk of being infected.
  • Having many sex partners, this increases the chances of having sex with someone who has HIV.
  • Exchanging sex for money, drugs, food, housing, or other things of value.
  • Having sex with older partners, especially partners who use drugs.
  • Having sex with partners you do not know well.
  • Having a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or having a partner who has a history of STDs.
  • Rape or incest – anyone who has been a victim of rape or incest should seek counseling, including advice about HIV testing.

 

Parents or guardians will not be told the test result if the adolescent being tested shows capacity to consent to the HIV test. The laws that protect

Confidentiality of HIV-related information applies, no matter what the person’s age or whether the person has parental consent or parental involvement. There are certain times when a parent or guardian of an adolescent who gave informed consent can be told confidential HIV-related information – for example, if the adolescent is being abused or needs urgent care. If it is best for the adolescent, HIV-related information should be kept strictly confidential.

Kifua Kikuu na UKIMWI ni magonjwa mawili yenye uhusiano ambapo kila ugonjwa huongeza kasi ya ugonjwa mwingine.

Mtu anaweza kuishi navimelea vya Kifua Kikuu bila kuugua kifua kikuu kama kingayake ya mwili ni imara.

  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU king ayake ya mwili inapopungua husababisha vimelea vya Kifua Kikuu kuanza kushambulia mwili na kusababisha ugonjwa wa Kifua Kikuu.
  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU ni rahisi kuambukizwa na kuugua Kifua Kikuu kwani kinga ya miili yao hupungua.
  • Kifua Kikuu huharakisha mtu anayeishi na VVU kuugua UKIMWI.
  • Kifua Kikuu ni ugonjwa nyemelezi unaoongoza kusababisha vifo kwa watu wanaoshi na VVU.
  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU ana uwezekano mkubwa wa kupata Kifua Kikuu sugu

KUMBUKA: Sio kila mgonjwa wa kifua kikuu ana VVU na si kila anayeishi na VVU ana Kifua Kikuu

Kifua Kikuu na UKIMWI ni magonjwa mawili yenye uhusiano ambapo kila ugonjwa huongeza kasi ya ugonjwa mwingine.

Mtu anaweza kuishi navimelea vya Kifua Kikuu bila kuugua kifua kikuu kama kingayake ya mwili ni imara.

  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU kinga yake ya mwili inapopungua husababisha vimelea vya Kifua Kikuu kuanza kushambulia mwili na kusababisha ugonjwa wa Kifua Kikuu.
  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU ni rahisi kuambukizwa na kuugua Kifua Kikuu kwani kinga ya miili yao hupungua.
  • Kifua Kikuu huharakisha mtu anayeishi na VVU kuugua UKIMWI.
  • Kifua Kikuu ni ugonjwa nyemelezi unaoongoza kusababisha vifo kwa watu wanaoshi na VVU.
  • Mtu anayeishi na VVU ana uwezekano mkubwa wa kupata Kifua Kikuu sugu

KUMBUKA: Sio kila mgonjwa wa kifua kikuu ana VVU na si kila anayeishi na VVU ana Kifua Kikuu

  1. Kikohozi kwa wiki mbili au zaidi
  2. Makohozi yaliochanganyikana na damu
  3. Kupungua uzito
  4. Kutokwa jasho hasa wakati wa usiku
  5. Homa

Saratani ya shingo ya kizazi ni moja ya saratani inayosababisha vifo kwa wanawake wengi Tanzania , Saratani ya shingo ya kizazi ni moja ya saratani inayoshambulia chembe chembe hai zilizopo kwenye mlango wa kizazi (cervix) saratani hii husababishwa na virusi vya aina papilloma vijulikanavyo  kama Human Papiloma Virus(HPV)nambavyo huambukizwa kwa njia ya  kujamiana (ngono).

 Saratani ya shingo ya kizazi ni saratani inayoongoza kwa kusababisha vifo vya wanawake wengi duniani. Inakadiriwa kuwa asilimia 85 ya vifo hivi hutokea katika nchi zinazoendelea. Kwa Tanzania, wastani wa wanawake 6,241 huugua saratani hii kila mwaka, ambapo 4,355 kati yao hufa, hii ni kwa mujibu wa ripoti ya shirika la afya duniani (W.H.O) ya mwaka 2010

Mambo ambayo yanayoongeza hatari za kupata Saratani ya mlango wa kizazi ni kama ifuatavyo;

  • Kushiriki tendo ndoa katika  umri mdogo au chini ya miaka 18
  • Kuwa na wenzi tofauti au mwenzi aliye na wapenzi tofauti
  • Utumiaji wa sigara kwani hupunguza nguvu ya kinga mwilini(impairs immune system)
  • Watu wenye kinga hafifu ya mwili au magojwa kama Ukimwi
  • Uzazi wa mara kwa mara

 

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. In most cases, TB is treatable and curable; however, people with TB can die if they do not get proper treatment.

Symptoms of TB disease depend on where in the body the TB bacteria are growing. TB bacteria usually grow in the lungs (pulmonary TB). TB disease in the lungs may cause symptoms such as

  • Cough that lasts 2 weeks or longer
  • Frequency of fevers
  • Coughing up blood or sputum (phlegm from deep inside the lungs)
  • Excessive night sweats
  • Noticeable weight loss

Other symptoms of TB disease are

  • weakness or fatigue
  • chest pain
  • no appetite
  • chills

Symptoms of TB disease in other parts of the body depend on the area affected.

TB bacteria are spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.

TB is NOT spread by:

  • shaking someone’s hand
  • sharing food or drink
  • touching bed linens or toilet seats
  • sharing toothbrushes
  • kissing

When a person breathes in TB bacteria, the bacteria can settle in the lungs and begin to grow. From there, they can move through the blood to other parts of the body, such as the kidney, spine, and brain.

TB disease in the lungs or throat can be infectious. This means that the bacteria can be spread to other people. TB in other parts of the body, such as the kidney or spine, is usually not infectious.

People with TB disease are most likely to spread it to people they spend time with every day. This includes family members, friends, and coworkers or schoolmates.

TB prevention consists of several main parts.

  1. Stopping the transmission of TB from one adult to another

This is done through firstly, identifying people with active TB, and then curing them through the provision of drug treatment. With proper TB treatment someone with TB will very quickly not be infectious and so can no longer spread TB to others.

  1. Other TB prevention activities

There are several other TB prevention activities. This includes preventing people with latent TB from developing active, and infectious, TB disease. TB infection control including the use of respirators and masks, which means preventing the transmission of TB in such settings as hospitals & prisons. The pasteurization of milk also helps to prevent humans from getting bovine TB. There is a vaccine for TB, but it makes only a small contribution to TB prevention. It does little to interrupt the transmission of TB among adults.

  • Educating people about TB is also an important part of TB prevention, as well as ensuring that people who need treatment receive it as soon as possible.

Actions to be taken

In order to reduce exposure in households where someone has infectious TB, the following actions should be taken whenever possible:

  • Houses should be adequately ventilated;
  • Anyone who coughs should be educated on cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene, and should follow such practice at all times;
  • While smear positive, TB patients should:
    • Spend as much time as possible outdoors;
    • If possible, sleep alone in a separate, adequately ventilated room;
    • Spend as little time as possible on public transport;
    • Spend as little time as possible in places where large numbers of people gather together.

HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are so closely connected that their relationship is often described as a co-epidemic. In the last 15 years the number of new TB cases has more than doubled in countries where the number of HIV infections is also high.

People living with HIV are more likely than others to become sick with tuberculosis (TB). This is because HIV weakens the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight TB germs.

If you have HIV, it is important to know if you have TB infection because HIV weakens the immune system. When a person’s immune system is weak, latent TB infection can quickly progress to TB disease. If you have HIV, it is very important to get a TB test.

If you have latent TB infection or TB disease, and you do not know your HIV status, you should get an HIV test. This will help your physician know how to treat both your TB and HIV infections.

Good News!

The good news is that TB disease can be treated and cured. The first step is to find out if you are infected with the TB germs. You can do this by getting a TB diagnosis test.  You can get this TB from any public or private health facilities free of charge; hurry up!!! if you have any sign suggestive of TB

  • The two diseases are a deadly combination; they are far more destructive together than either disease alone
  • In developing countries many people infected with HIV contract TB as the first sign of AIDS
  • At least one-third of the 38.6 million HIV-positive people in the world are also infected with TB and are at greatly increased risk of developing TB disease (the active and contagious form of TB)
  • TB is the leading cause of illness and death among people living with HIV in Africa and a major cause of death in HIV-positive people living elsewhere. In some settings, TB kills up to half of all AIDS patients

Isonaizid Preventive Therapy is the administration of INH to individuals with latent TB infection in order to prevent progression to active TB Disease.

In Tanzania people who at high risk for TB can get and benefit to IPT schedule, this population includes:

  • HIV exposed and unexposed infants of contact with TB mothers
  • All children young than five in contact with smear positive TB patient
  • Hospitalize and outpatients HIV positive patients who have no symptoms of TB
  • HIV positive household who are in contact with TB patients
  • HIV positive health workers
  • HIV positive prisoners
  • Other HIV positive individual in congregate setting e.g Mineworkers

PLHIV are at high risk of developing active TB at any time in their life time due to compromised immunity, Isoniazid is one of the most effective bactericidal, anti-TB drugs available at present. While it protects against progression of latent TB infection to active disease i.e. reactivation, it also prevents TB reinfection post the exposure to an open case of TB.  

  • Erratic supply of INH, this interrupt the IPT cascade hence completion rate become low
  • Un trained staffs fear to provide INH
  • Few clients reported side effects on INH requiring pyridoxine (not easily available)
  • Clients and community misconceptions about IPT (Drug resistance, side effects)
  • Poor documentation on IPT parameters in national tools i.e Presumptive TB Registers & CTC 2 cards
  • High staff turn-over -Shortage of trained staff
  • MMS against IPT (Stable clients to unstable criterial difficult on actual practices)
  • Poor quality of TB screening by health care
  • Difficulties to verify active TB especially in poor setting facilities (peripheral and difficulties to reach facilities)
  • IPT services are widely available in public and private facilities throughout Tanzania, luckily the services are provided free of charge to all beneficiaries

MDR-TB is a drug-resistant TB occurs when bacteria become resistant to the drugs used to treat TB. This means that the drug can no longer kill the TB bacteria.

Drug-resistant TB (DR TB) is spread the same way that drug-susceptible TB is spread. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.

Drug-resistant TB can occur when the drugs used to treat TB are misused or mismanaged. Examples of misuse or mismanagement include

  • People do not complete a full course of TB treatment
  • Health care providers prescribe the wrong treatment (the wrong dose or length of time)
  • Drugs for proper treatment are not available
  • Drugs are of poor quality

Drug-resistant TB is more common in people who

  • Do not take their TB drugs regularly
  • Do not take all of their TB drugs
  • Develop TB disease again, after being treated for TB disease in the past
  • Come from areas of the world where drug-resistant TB is common
  • Have spent time with someone known to have drug-resistant TB disease

The most important way to prevent the spread of drug-resistant TB is to take all TB drugs exactly as prescribed by the health care provider. No doses should be missed and treatment

should not be stopped early. People receiving treatment for TB disease should tell their health care provider if they are having trouble taking the drugs.

Health care providers can help prevent drug-resistant TB by quickly diagnosing cases, following recommended treatment guidelines, monitoring patients’ response to treatment, and making sure therapy is completed.

Drug-resistant TB is caused by TB bacteria that are resistant to at least one first-line anti-TB drug. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is resistant to more than one anti-TB drug and at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF).

Treating and curing drug-resistant TB is complicated. Inappropriate management can have life-threatening results. Drug-resistant TB should be managed by or in close consultation with an expert in the disease.

Yes. A woman who has HIV can pass the virus to her baby during:

  • Pregnancy
  • Delivery
  • Breastfeeding

There are medicines that a woman living with HIV should take during pregnancy, labor, and delivery to protect her health and greatly reduce the chance that she will pass the virus to her baby. Medication is also given to the infant right after birth and for the first weeks of life. It is very important for all women to know their HIV status before they become pregnant, or very early in their pregnancy, so that they can take full advantage of these medicines and make informed decisions. A second HIV test is also recommended late in the pregnancy to identify if the woman was exposed to HIV during the pregnancy.

Yes. A woman can pass HIV to her baby during pregnancy, delivery, or Breastfeeding. However, there are medicines that a pregnant woman can take to greatly reduce the chance of her baby being born with HIV. These medicines have resulted in a large reduction in the number of babies infected with HIV.

Yes. Health care providers need to know the HIV status of anyone who they treat in order to give the best possible health care. Children with HIV may develop infections and illnesses that require special medical attention. They may need medicines to fight HIV or to prevent HIV-related illnesses. Children with HIV also have a special childhood vaccination schedule.

Parents should talk with their children about HIV and AIDS for many reasons,

Including:

  • To make sure their children are getting accurate information that It appropriate for their age; and
  • To help their children learn skills to reduce the risk of becoming infected with HIV and protect themselves later in life.

Parents should look for chances to discuss HIV and AIDS directly with their children before their children are sexually active or experiment with drugs. A good way to approach the subject is to ask children what they are learning about HIV and AIDS in school. Or, parents can use news articles or stories on television, radio, or in the newspaper to start a conversation.

Parents should learn the facts about HIV and AIDS before talking with their children. Health departments, school health teachers, clinics, physicians, AIDS related community organizations, libraries, and the Internet are good resources.

Yes. Immunizations are important for all children. However, the schedule of immunizations is different for children with HIV, so it is important to tell the health care provider that the child has HIV. Also, vaccines given to an infant or child with HIV may become less effective over time as the child’s immune system gets weaker. So, a child with HIV who is exposed to any childhood disease should receive medical attention, even if the child has been vaccinated.

HIV is not passed through casual contact like hugging, touching, or sharing toys. It is highly unlikely that a child could get HIV through fighting or contact sports. The external contact with blood that might occur in a sports injury or through a fight is very different from the direct entry of someone else’s blood into your bloodstream that occurs from sharing needles or drug works.

The child’s health care providers need to know that the child has HIV in order to provide the best possible care. Providers include doctors, nurses, dentists, and other medical employees.

The law does not require parents and guardians to share HIV-related information with a child’s school. However, it may be in the child’s best interest for some school employees to know about the child’s HIV infection (for example, if the child needs help taking medicines).

Parents and guardians of children with HIV should also think about whether to share their child’s HIV status with people directly involved in the child’s life, such as babysitters, friends, and relatives. They do not have to tell anyone. However, it may be overwhelming to care for a young person with HIV/AIDS without telling others and getting support.

Parents and guardians should consider:

  • How disclosure would be helpful to the child;
  • How disclosure would be helpful to the parents or guardians; and
  • Whether others can be trusted with this confidential information.

Yes. HIV infection is an important concern for people of all ages, and young adults are no different.

The same behaviors that put adults at risk for HIV also put adolescents at risk. These activities include:

  • Having vaginal, anal, or oral sex without using a condom; or
  • Sharing drug injection equipment.

Adolescents should also be aware of these high-risk situations:

  • Drinking or using drugs. Drugs and alcohol can affect your judgment and lead to unplanned and unprotected sex.
  • Injection drug use, including sharing needles, syringes, cotton, spoons, bottle caps, or any other equipment (“works”).
  • Experiencing “blackouts” – not being able to remember what happened while using alcohol or drugs.
  • Not understanding your own risk of being infected with HIV or your partner’s risk of being infected.
  • Having many sex partners, this increases the chances of having sex with someone who has HIV.
  • Exchanging sex for money, drugs, food, housing, or other things of value.
  • Having sex with older partners, especially partners who use drugs.
  • Having sex with partners you do not know well.
  • Having a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or having a partner who has a history of STDs.
  • Rape or incest – anyone who has been a victim of rape or incest should seek counseling, including advice about HIV testing.

Parents or guardians will not be told the test result if the adolescent being tested shows capacity to consent to the HIV test. The laws that protect

Confidentiality of HIV-related information applies, no matter what the person’s age or whether the person has parental consent or parental involvement. There are certain times when a parent or guardian of an adolescent who gave informed consent can be told confidential HIV-related information – for example, if the adolescent is being abused or needs urgent care. If it is best for the adolescent, HIV-related information should be kept strictly confidential.

 The most advanced phase of infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in which the immune system is weakened. The person becomes more susceptible to a variety of infections (called opportunistic infections) and other conditions such as cancer. A diagnosis of AIDS is made based on clinical criteria and/or the results of blood tests.

 Discrimination of someone based on a person’s age

Means “against retrovirus”; HIV is a retrovirus. An antiretroviral is a drug that controls the retrovirus.

Antiretroviral therapy (abbreviated as ART): Treatment with drugs designed to control HIV. For HIV therapy to be successful over time, the initiation of ART should involve both the selection of the most appropriate regimen and the acceptance of the regimen by the patient, bolstered by education and adherence counseling. All are critical in achieving the goal of durable and complete viral suppression. Discussion of ART should occur at the start of care for all HIV patients, regardless of CD4 count. The clinician and patient should discuss the benefits of early ART and individual factors that may affect the decision to initiate, such as patient readiness or reluctance and adherence barriers.

 A CD4 count is a lab test that measures the number of CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4 cells) in a sample of your blood. In people living with HIV, it is the most important laboratory indicator of how well your immune system is working and the strongest predictor of HIV progression. (AIDS.gov)

look directly at the genetic material of the HIV in your blood and give you information about the HIV drugs your virus is resistant to, they are the most common and widely used resistance test.

 HCV is usually transmitted through blood and rarely through other body fluids, such as semen. HCV progresses more rapidly in people coinfected with HIV than in people with HCV alone.

 HIV is a retrovirus that attacks the body’s immune system, making people who have transmitted HIV potentially vulnerable to other infections and diseases. If untreated with antiretroviral medications, HIV can progress to AIDS. People with either HIV or AIDS can lead healthy lives if they receive ART and appropriate routine medical care.

The most common test used to diagnose HIV. It does not test for the presence of HIV, but for the presence of antibodies against the virus. The test can be conducted with a blood sample or oral fluid Urine tests are also available but are not as effective at detecting antibodies. Typical antibody test results are available in about a week; rapid HIV antibody test results are available within half an hour.

HIV negative A person who is HIV negative is someone who is not living with HIV. An HIV negative test result is one where no HIV antibodies or antigens were discovered in the sample.

 A person who is HIV positive is someone who is living with HIV. A series of laboratory tests have resulted in the diagnosis of HIV.

 HIV transmission from mother to child, which can happen during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. (CDC)

 HIV antiretroviral medication taken less than 36 hours after possible exposure to HIV to reduce the chance of having a test that comes back as having a diagnosis of HIV. For example, a person who is having sex and the condom breaks should seek a healthcare provider’s advice on whether to take PEP

 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is an HIV prevention method in which people who do not have HIV take a daily pill (HIV antiretroviral medication) to reduce their risk of becoming infected. Based on studies showing significant reduction in HIV acquisition among HIV-negative persons who use PrEP and receive a package of prevention, care and support services. Combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for use as PrEP among sexually active adults at risk for HIV

the HIV test indicates that HIV antibodies were found in a blood or oral sample.

 Activity that makes a person more susceptible or more likely to be exposed to harm. Because different activities have different levels of risk, activities are often called either high-risk or low-risk.

Sexual health is having a feeling of wellness related to sexuality. It applies to people of all ages. Sexual health is physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual. It is a central element of human health. Sexual health is based on a positive, equal, and respectful approach to sexuality, relationships and reproduction. This is based on free choice and is without fear, violence, discrimination, stigma or shame.

Any disease or infection that is transmitted primarily through sexual contact.

 Stigma occurs when a person or a group of people are devalued because they are associated with a certain disease, behavior or practice.

 When there is so little virus in and a person who is living with HIV’s blood that it cannot be measured by viral load tests. An undetectable viral load is associated with better long-term health. The person is still HIV positive, but the risk of infection is lower and the chance of passing the virus to a partner is greatly reduced.

 A measure of HIV in the blood. Nucleic acid amplification test(NAAT) tests for viral load, not for the presence of HIV antibodies.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus. You may hear that someone is HIV infected, has HIV infection, or has HIV disease. These are all terms that mean the person has HIV in his or her body and can pass the virus to other people. HIV attacks the body’s immune system. The immune system protects the body from infections and disease, but has no clear way to protect it from HIV. Without treatment, most people infected with HIV become less able to fight off the germs that we are exposed to every day. Many of these germs do not usually make a healthy person sick, but they can cause life-threatening infections and cancers in a person whose immune system has been weakened by HIV.

HIV treatments can slow this process and allow people with HIV to live longer, healthier lives.

No. People infected with HIV may have no symptoms for ten or more years. They may not know they are infected. An HIV test is the only way to find out if you have HIV.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a late stage of HIV disease.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV infection has AIDS when he or she:

  • Has a CD4 cell count (a way to measure the strength of the immune system) that falls below 200. A normal CD4 cell count is 500 or higher.

OR

  • Develops any of the specific, serious conditions – also called AIDS-defining illnesses – that are linked with HIV infection

A person of any age, sex, race, ethnic group, religion, economic background, or sexual orientation can get HIV.

Those who are most at risk are:

  • People who have “unprotected sex” with someone A person of any who has HIV. Unprotected sex means vaginal, anal, age, sex, race, or oral sex without using a condom. ethnic group,
  • People who share needles, syringes, or other equipment to inject drugs, steroids, or even vitamins religion, economic or medicine with someone who has HIV background, or
  • Babies can potentially become infected during their sexual orientation mothers’ pregnancy, during delivery, or after birth can get HIV. In the immediate post-partum period. They can also become infected through breastfeeding.
  • Health care and maintenance workers who may be exposed to blood and/or body fluids at work sometimes get infected through on-the-job exposures like needle-stick injuries

Medicines that fight HIV have helped many people with HIV and AIDS live years and even decades longer than was possible in the past, before effective treatment was available. HIV treatments are not a cure, and they do not work equally well for everyone, but they have extended the lives of many people with HIV and AIDS. Without treatment, some people live for just a few years after getting HIV. Others live much longer.

No. There is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection. Researchers are working to develop a vaccine. Vaccines in development are being tested to find out if they work.

No. There is no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, there are medicines that fight HIV and help people with HIV and AIDS live longer, healthier lives.

HIV is spread when infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets into the bloodstream of another person.  You can only get through: HIV if infected

  • Direct entry into a blood vessel; blood, semen,
  • Mucous linings, such as the vagina, rectum, penis, vaginal fluids, or mouth, eyes, or nose; or breast milk gets
  • A break in the skin. into your body.
  • HIV is not spread through saliva (spit).

HIV is spread in the following ways:

  • Having vaginal, anal, or oral sex without using a condom.
  • Sharing needles, syringes, or works to inject drugs, vitamins, hormones, steroids, or medicines.
  • Women with HIV infection can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding.
  • People who are exposed to blood and/or body fluids at work, like health care workers, may be exposed to HIV through needle-sticks or other on-the-job exposures.

A person infected with HIV can pass the virus to others during these activities.

This is true even if the person:

  • has no symptoms of HIV;
  • has not been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS;
  • is taking HIV medicine; or
  • has an undetectable viral load
  • HIV is not spread by casual contact like sneezing, coughing, eating or drinking from common utensils, shaking hands, hugging, or using restrooms, drinking fountains, swimming pools, or hot tubs

No. HIV is not like the flu or a cold. It is not passed through casual contact or by being near a person who is infected. You can only get HIV if infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets into your body.

Any time you share injection equipment with someone who has HIV or whose HIV status you do not know, there is a high risk that you will get HIV. Small amounts of blood from a person infected with HIV may stay in the needles, syringes, or drug “works” (spoons, bottle caps, and cotton) and can be injected into the bloodstream of the next person who uses the equipment

It can if you share injection equipment. HIV can be passed any time you share equipment to inject drugs, vitamins, hormones, insulin, steroids, or any other substance intravenously (IV) into a vein, into your muscles, or under your skin. Always use new, sterile needles and syringes when injecting any substance into your body. If you must reuse a needle, clean it with bleach.

Yes. Having an STD, especially herpes or syphilis sores, increases your risk of getting HIV and giving HIV to a partner. Other STDs, like gonorrhea or chlamydia, also increase your risk of becoming infected with HIV. STDs change the cells that line the vagina, penis, rectum, or mouth, which can cause open sores too. These sores make it easier for HIV to enter STD. Any inflammation or sore caused by an STD also more likely to get makes it easier for HIV to enter the bloodstream during infected with HIV sexual contact.

Many STDs do not cause symptoms, especially in women. It is important for sexually active men and women to get tested for STDs regularly, even if they have no symptoms.

Yes. Having unprotected sex with many partners increases your risk of getting HIV because it increases your chances of coming into contact with someone who has HIV. It also increases your risk of getting other sexually transmitted diseases (like herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, venereal warts, or syphilis). Having an STD, in turn, can make you more likely to get HIV.

However, having unprotected sex with anyone who has HIV, or whose HIV status you do not know, puts you at risk. So, even a person who has unprotected sex with just one partner can still get HIV if that partner was infected prior to having sex or becomes infected during the relationship.

Yes. A woman who has HIV can pass the virus to her baby during:

  • Pregnancy;
  • Delivery; or

There are medicines that women with HIV should take during pregnancy, labor, and delivery and that can be given to their babies just after birth, to greatly reduce the chance that their babies will become infected with HIV. It is best for women to know their HIV status before they become pregnant or very early in their pregnancy so that they can make informed decisions and take full advantage of these medicines.

Yes. Any person infected with HIV, even if he or she has no symptoms, can pass HIV to another person. Risk reduction measures still need to be taken.

Yes. A viral load test measures the amount of HIV in a person’s blood. An undetectable viral load means that the amount of virus in a person’s blood is too low for the test to measure. It does not mean that there is no HIV in the person’s body. A person who has a low or undetectable viral load can pass HIV to someone else, although the risk is probably lower than if he or she had a high viral load. Risk reduction measures, like using condoms and not sharing needles, still need to be taken.

There have been no reported cases of HIV transmission from casual contact while living with a person with HIV or AIDS, even for a long time. However, there have been reported cases where household members became infected with HIV as a result of direct blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing a razor or toothbrush, getting stuck with a needle, or by getting infected blood on a rash and/or open sore.

No. HIV is not passed through food, water, or air, or by touching any object that was handled by, touched by, or breathed on by a person who has HIV.

If you have a test result that results in an HIV diagnosis, you will receive post-test education about the meaning of the test result and the importance of health care. HIV treatment is effective, easy to take and has few or no side effects. The HIV testing provider will schedule an appointment for HIV care on the spot.

If you a person living with HIV, it will be important to reduce the risk of passing the virus to others.

The HIV testing provider will talk to you about the importance of notifying partners of possible exposure to HIV and the importance of HIV testing.

Persons who are diagnosed with HIV can choose from the following options on how they would like to have their partners to be informed that they have been exposed to HIV;

  • A counselor or the Contact Notification Assistance
  • Provider can tell partners without revealing the identity of the person
  • People can tell their partners with the help of their healthcare provider or counselor
  • People can tell their partners themselves

HIV is treated by taking a combination of medications. The different medications fight the virus at different stages. The health care provider will use a lab test called a genotype test or resistance test to determine the most effective treatment regimen for the patient. The good news is that pharmaceutical companies combine the different antiretroviral medications into one pill. This means that for many patients, treating HIV may be as simple as taking one or two pills, once a day.

It is important to seek treatment for HIV as early as possible. Getting early HIV treatment will help keep people living with HIV healthy and prevent HIV from affecting how long they live or how well they feel. The pills have either no side effects or manageable side effects.

Taking the medications consistently is the most important key to staying healthy and feeling well.

Once a person begins to feel well, that does not mean they should stop taking their medicine. In order for HIV medication to be the most effective, it should be taken every day even if the person feels healthy.

Viral suppression means the amount of virus in the person’s blood is below the level the test can identify. When people living with HIV who see their healthcare provider regularly and take their medication every day, there is a very good chance that they will become virally suppressed. Viral suppression, sometimes known as being undetectable, is an important goal of treatment.

If a person living with HIV doesn’t take their medications regularly, the treatment won’t work as well and the amount of HIV in your body will increase. That is called having a detectable viral load. This will eventually lead to damage to the person’s immune system and greater chances of becoming ill. If people living with HIV don’t take their medication regularly, it also can lead to what is called drug resistance. This means the virus can get around the medication and the healthcare provider may have to prescribe a new treatment plan that might be more complicated to take, or possibly have a greater risk of side effects.